How many books has Stephen King written to date? I would like challenge myself by reading as many of Stephen King’s books as i can, but i do not know how many books he has written. If you could tell me how many he has written, and list them all, that would be a great help. Thank you!
This title is available as instant sheet music download: Richards (Jerusalem the Golden)
Works of Stephen KingNovelsCarrie (1974) · ‘Salem’s Lot (1975) · The Shining (1977) · The Stand (1978) · The Dead Zone (1979) · Firestarter (1980) · Cujo (1981) · Christine (1983) · Pet Sematary (1983) · Cycle of the Werewolf (1983) · The Talisman (1984; with Peter Straub) · It (1986) · The Eyes of the Dragon (1987) · Misery (1987) · The Tommyknockers (1987) · The Dark Half (1989) · Needful Things (1991) · Gerald’s Game (1992) · Dolores Claiborne (1992) · Insomnia (1994) · Rose Madder (1995) · The Green Mile (1996) · Desperation (1996) · Bag of Bones (1998) · The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon (1999) · Dreamcatcher (2001) · Black House (2001; with Peter Straub) · From a Buick 8 (2002) · The Colorado Kid (2005) · Cell (2006) · Lisey’s Story (2006) · Duma Key (2008) · Under the Dome (2009) · Blockade Billy (2010) · Doctor Sleep (TBA)The Dark Tower seriesThe Gunslinger (1982) · The Drawing of the Three (1987) · The Waste Lands (1991) · Wizard and Glass (1997) · Wolves of the Calla (2003) · Song of Susannah (2004) · The Dark Tower (2004) · The Wind Through the Keyhole (TBA)Richard Bachman novelsRage (1977) · The Long Walk (1979) · Roadwork (1981) · The Running Man (1982) · Thinner (1984) · The Bachman Books (1985) · The Regulators (1996) · Blaze (2007)Short fiction collectionsNight Shift (1978) · Different Seasons (1982) · Skeleton Crew (1985) · Four Past Midnight (1990) · Nightmares & Dreamscapes (1993) · Hearts in Atlantis (1999) · Everything’s Eventual (2002) · Just After Sunset (2008) · Full Dark, No Stars (2010)Non-fictionDanse Macabre (1981) · Nightmares in the Sky (1988) · On Writing (2000) · Secret Windows (2000) · Faithful (2004; with Stewart O’Nan)E-booksRiding the Bullet (2000) · The Plant (2000; unfinished) · Ur (2009)ScreenplaysCreepshow (1982) · Cat’s Eye (1985) · Silver Bullet (1985) · Maximum Overdrive (1986; also director) · Pet Sematary (1989) · Sleepwalkers (1992) · Cell (TBA)TeleplaysSorry, Right Number (1988) · Golden Years (1991) · The Stand (1994) · The Shining (1997) · Chinga (1998; with Chris Carter) · Storm of the Century (1999) · Rose Red (2002) · Kingdom Hospital (2004) · Desperation (2006)Collaborationswith musiciansMichael Jackson’s Ghosts (1997; with Michael Jackson) · Ghost Brothers of Darkland County (2010; with John Mellencamp) · Black Ribbons (2010; with Shooter Jennings)Graphic novelsCreepshow (1982) · The Dark Tower (2007) · The Stand (2008) · The Talisman (2009) · American Vampire (2010) · N. (2010)Related articlesUnpublished and uncollected works by Stephen King · Media based on Stephen King works · Stephen King in popular culture · Tabitha King · Naomi King · Joe Hill · Owen King · Peter Straub · Rock Bottom Remainders · Dollar Baby · Jerusalem’s Lot · Castle Rock, Maine · Derry, Maine · The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer: My Life at Rose Red
What were the purposes of the people who fought during the Crusades?
Most of these crusades was to conquer, they were basically religiously motivated. Without attempting to put any humor toward this, these wars were termed the ‘rape & pillage’ Crusades which describes it a little more accurately.
To serve their God. People on both sides were convinced that He wanted and commanded them to protect the Holy Places in Jerusalem from being overrun by people of the ‘wrong’, ‘false’ faith. You will encounter people who say cynically ‘no, that’s not true, religion was just a cover for a bid by Europeans to gain territory and wealth in the Middle East’. But they’re wrong; crusading was an extremely expensive and horribly dangerous activity which they undertook for what they thought was the good of their souls.
Retake the Holy Land for Christendom – (ostensibly) and have a jolly time looting, raping and pillaging along the way.
The Cause for the Crusades was a war between Christians and Moslems which centered around the city of Jerusalem. This City held a Holy significance to the Christian religion. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem commemorated the hill of crucifixion and Christ’s burial tomb was visited by Pilgrims. In 1065 Jerusalem was taken by the Turks and 3000 Christians were massacred starting a chain of events which contributed to the cause of the crusades.The Objectives of the crusades was at first to release the Holy Land, in particular Jerusalem, from the Saracens, but in time was extended to seizing Spain from the Moors, the Slavs and Pagans from eastern Europe, and the islands of the Mediterranean.There were a total of nine crusades including the Crusaders of the Upper Classes (The crusades, appealed strongly to the warlike instincts of the feudal nobles. They saw in an expedition against the East an unequaled opportunity for acquiring fame, riches, lands, and power) and the Crusaders of the Lower Classes (So great was the misery of the common people in medieval Europe that for them it seemed not a hardship, but rather a relief, to leave their homes in order to better themselves abroad. Famine and pestilence, poverty and oppression, drove them to emigrate hopefully to the golden East). The first four crusades were seen as the most import and scant reference is made to the other crusades. King Richard I of England also known as Richard the Lionheart, was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin, although he did not reconquer Jerusalem.
It is now impossible to assess exactly why the First Crusade occurred, although many possible causes have been suggested by historians. The historiography of the Crusades reflects attempts made by different historians to understand the Crusades’ complex causes and justifications. An early theory, the so-called “Erdmann thesis”, developed by German historian Carl Erdmann, directly linked the Crusades to the 11th-century reform movements. This first theory claimed that theexportation of violence to the east, and the assistance to the struggling Byzantine Empire were the Crusaders’ primary goals, and that the conquest of Jerusalem was more a secondary, popular goal. Thomas Asbridge argues that the First Crusade was Pope Urban II’s attempt to expand the power of the church, and reunite the churches of Rome and Constantinople, which had been in schism since 1054. Asbridge, however, provides little evidence from Urban’s own writings to bolster this claim, and Urban’s four extant letters on crusading do not seem to express such a motive. According to Asbridge, the spread of Islam was unimportant because “Islam and Christendom had coexisted for centuries in relative equanimity”.Asbridge, however, fails to note that the recent Turkish conquests of Anatolia and southern Syria had shattered the tense but relatively stable balance of power that a somewhat revived Byzantine Empire had gradually developed with earlier Islamic powers over the course of the 10th and early 11th century. Following the defeat at Manzikert in 1071, Muslims had taken half of the Byzantine Empire’s territory, and such strategically and religiously important cities as Antioch and Nicaea had only fallen to Muslims in the decade before the Council of Piacenza. Moreover, the harrowing accounts of the Turkish invasion and conquest of Anatolia recorded by such Eastern Christian chroniclers as John Skylitzes, Michael Attaleiates, Matthew of Edessa, Michael the Syrian and others, which are summarized by Vryonis, seem to contradict Asbridge’s broad picture of equanimious “coexistence” between the Christian and Muslim worlds in the second half of the 11th century. The idea that the crusades were a response to Islam dates back as far as 12th-century historian William of Tyre, who began his chronicle with the fall of Jerusalem to Umar. Although the original Islamic conquests had taken place centuries before the First Crusade, more recent events would have been fresh in the minds of the European Christians of the time. For example, in 1009 the Church of the Holy Sepulchre had been destroyed by the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah; Pope Sergius IV supposedly called for a military expedition in response, and in France, many Jewish communities were even attacked in a misdirected retaliation. Despite the Church’s rebuilding after al-Hakim’s death, and pilgrimages resuming, including the Great German Pilgrimage of 1064–1065, pilgrims continued to suffer attacks from local Muslims. In addition, the even more recent Turkish incursions into Anatolia and northern Syria were certainly viewed as devastating by Eastern Christian chroniclers, and it is plausible they were presented as such by the Byzantines to the Pope in order to solicit the aid of European Christians.The Second Crusade is much essiaer to determin the purpose. It started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa, The county had been founded during the First Crusade (1096–1099) by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall. Edessa was the most northerly state, and also the weakest and least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuq Turks.The Third Crusade was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin . It was largely successful, but fell short of its ultimate goal, the reconquest of Jerusalem. It’s failure to recapture Jerusalem would lead to the call for a Fourth Crusade six years later.The Fourth Crusade was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Instead, in April 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and sacked the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
The original reason was that In March 1095 at the Council of Piacenza, envoys from Constantinople, capital of Greek Christian Empire of Byzantium, requesting help on behalf of their master Alexios I Komnenos. The Byzantine Emperor, once excommunicated by Gregory VII, and then lifted by Urban II, although, not under immediate threat of destruction, complaining of invasion by the Seljuk Turks, requested help from Urban II. However, Many who fought in the crusades were looking for ablsolution for their sins and Pope Urban II promised if they fought against “.a race absolutely alien to God.has invaded the land of the Christians..” they would gain absolution.A good film would be Kingdom of Heaven.